中国哲学简史 – 道家

现在读书真的是糟蹋书,唉。有时候只能读得囫囵一些,否则永远也读不完了。然后这样碎片化地记录一些。。。

冯友兰说道家最初想要解决的一个问题是,如何保全生命。一开始的一个方案是出世。《老子》里有个故事说,一棵树因为没有什么用而没有被砍。

然后,道家是部分继承了名家的抽象概念的路线。

到了庄子,道家追求的成功保全生命圣贤,是能够“驾驭六气”什么的。这个概念立马让我想到了斯宾诺莎——懂得宇宙运行规律(上帝)的人,能够处事不惊。那是很高级的境界。我国的先秦哲学家就达到了。冯友兰也说庄子这一点和斯宾诺莎的意思是一样的。

稍微想一下,我还是觉得庄子和斯宾诺莎不一样,即便可能结论是一样,但庄子得来得好像太容易了。斯宾诺莎是从经院哲学发展出来的,虽然他自己可能不觉得自己有多radical,但在我们看来,他还是挣脱了经院哲学的。有了这一番挣扎,西方通过弯曲的道路达到的同样的结论,比我们的更深刻。(当然,也有可能该怪我对庄子是如何达到这个结论的过程知道得太少。)

庄子说,(我的解读)你仔细想想我们都是尘土,死亡不可避免,是自然规律,就如昼夜交替一样,真正明白而且接受这一点的人,不会惧怕死亡。

这里冯友兰说了一个评价:庄子解决死亡问题的办法是取消问题。这是非常哲学的解决办法。哲学无法在实际方面帮你解决任何问题,what it can do, however, is to give man a point of view from which he can see that life is no more than death and loss is equal to gain. 这一种对哲学的评价(从上下文来看,是冯友兰对哲学,或者说起码是对庄子的哲学的一种评价),我一下子觉得有点被激怒了。思绪转到了想批评“中国人太聪明因小失大”之类的。罗素也说,科学是我们确切知道的,哲学是我们不确切知道的。其实意思是差不多的,但后者一点也不offensive。对这一段话,我还没有想清楚。

中国哲学简史-名家

第一次听到名家这一家。中学历史课本干嘛去了。

冯友兰说和古希腊的Sophists不一样。但是看了他的描述我觉得还是非常像的。而且好像Sophists和名家一样,也是从法律辩护需要延伸出来的。

冯友兰对惠施的描述让我很有好感啊。名家和Sophists为了辩论而辩论是表象。但是惠施更有一种mind debate的感觉。罗素的《如何避免愚蠢见解》里,一种避免愚蠢见解的办法就是,假装在和与自己观点相反的人辩论。诡辩如果是为了达到随便什么目的而辩论,除了技巧以外就没有别的意义了。但是惠施给我的感觉是罗素的那种mind debate。由此带来了各种相对的思索,我觉得很先进。公孙龙,因为“白马非马”这个故事在小学历史课里把我带歪了,我总有他比惠施少思索、更好辩的感觉。但是读到冯友兰说他后来达到了类似于柏拉图的ideal的抽象概念,理智告诉我他也是为了探索思辨。中国的哲学,太多伦理,太少抽象和思辨了。名家简直是一股清流。

儒墨

冯友兰在《中国哲学简史》中说,儒家和墨家,都是更早时候的高级阶级的人散落民间形成的。儒家来自文官(儒);墨家来自武官(侠)。后面这一点我第一次知道!中学历史课里只说了墨家会小孔成像(??)。

书里面举了例子说墨子去邻国说服不要攻打他所在的国家,他和邻国的将军模拟打仗,见招拆招。对方说,我没别的办法了,只有一个办法,但不告诉你。墨子说,我知道你说的是什么办法。国君问你们在说什么呀!墨子说,将军正在计划谋杀我,这样就没人统筹防御了。然而我有几百学徒,我已经教会了他们所有这些,所以你杀了我也没用。对方没办法之后放弃了。

这个例子我看了很着迷,说明墨家是一群真的有军事才能的人。但是他们喜欢防御。冯友兰说,他们不是一般的雇佣兵,而是有自己的标准。他们会打仗,但是十分厌恶暴力。这样一来,墨家就非常绝地了。(还有后面的兼爱x_x

我带着好感读下去,冯友兰说,墨子对“为什么要兼爱”的回答是极度功利主义的。我带着有色眼镜看,觉得那个时代对原因的探讨经常是既有结论的justification,无足奇怪。(忽然心虚:有结论然后到处看到支持结论的证据,这个习惯现在我们并不是没有。仔细想想这是无力从agnostic状态独立判断的弱点啊。我们只能做到世界之大数据之多无法处理,经常记得自己的结论很可能是偏见。。。

说到justification,冯友兰说儒家的很多东西是对过去的礼节习俗传统的justification。呵呵这大概说出了我对儒家的厌恶根源。另外,虽然孔子有时候挺可爱的,但是我要说一句罗素说亚里士多德的话:后人过于推崇他造成的思想停滞一千年的情况(中国是两千年),就算和他本人无关,也让我无法对他有好感。

最近发生了一些事情让我对偏见和争吵有很多感触。。。感觉说不清楚。但是我知道了一点,就是有个朋友有时候会触怒我,真是很难得的。这就叫做诤友。而我,似乎还没有能力同样地对待别人。(这一段和前面是什么关系<_<

将近一个月没写日志了,搞了半天就搞了这么一篇破碎的玩意。还有刚才连保存草稿都没成功,重新敲了一遍x_x

technology meta

每天都有无数的想法。看看记下来的话会不会印象深一些。所以新建一个日志分类叫做TIL。

好奇去看了PGP的维基百科页面,我其实想知道一下这个加密技术是怎么来的,和别的加密技术的区别是哪里。没有理解得很清楚。目前脑补是RSA加密可能效率比较低(大数据量情况下性能差),所以发明了这个包含RSA加密的技术。没太看懂技术的方面,但看到这个技术曾有法律争议很惊讶。1993年的时候,出于国防需要这个作者Phil Zimmermann被禁止在网上传播这个技术。他就把代码印在一本书里,因为印书和传播书是明确受美国宪法保护的。

有空读一读Why I Wrote PGP

今天听了一期The Inquiry的节目,采访了一本书的作者。这个作者在警告人们,随着技术的增长,inequality很可能会增加。他的主要观点,虽然按照节目的格式有四个,但我觉得大概可以概括成2个:一、人类历史上一直是贫富不均的。近代开始强调普通人,也是因为工业革命使得普通人成为了经济的必要环节(资本家需要劳动力)。当机器可以取代人之后,普通劳动力就不容易再被重视了。二、同样的从人类历史上一直是贫富悬殊的出发,如今的技术可以使得富阶级更加有能力增加差距(比如延长寿命、增加智力等)。

我觉得这样的观点要反驳的话也是有很多点可以说的。(比如我并不觉得普通人干脏活被剥削这件事,工业革命之前和之后有根本的区别。)然而他说的也有一定的道理。个人地位的崛起肯定是有经济方面的原因的。另外,技术发展但使用技术的智慧发展跟不上,也是罗素一直警告的问题。

 

Rogue One novelization 划线记录

在草稿箱呆了3个月的一篇日志。我也不知为何。本来就对这篇日志的内容没有要求了,就想把划线的地方都记下来回顾一下。这篇电影小说很棒。我本来一直不知道我可以更爱ANH,但R1帮我做到了;同样的也没想到R1小说让我更喜欢R1电影了。也许因为这一部不需要顾虑reveal太多,作者可以加入各种电影里无法表现的rationale。


回顾一下所有 highlight 的地方。都是细节。I’m now too scatter minded to string two thoughts together.

Cassian 接到 Draven 的暗杀命令之后的reasoning。战争显得更加复杂真实:

Cassian suspected she wanted a Senate hearing not because she thought it would work, but because she felt obligated to try.

Cassian admired Mothma. Galen Erso’s assassination would free her from obligation of a doomed peace effort.

Bodhi 被 Saw 手下虐待。努力改变世界和变成坏人之间真的是一条 fine line。从小被人笑话“难道你想要天下大乱吗”的我永远会被这样的内容触动。同时又在想,Saw 的手下是不是很多是这样的人。。。

Instead, these were the rebels the Empire had always warned of: the murderers, the criminals and terrorists who conceded their viciousness in a patriotic wrapping.

电影里 Tarkin 第一次出现的时候是背对着我们的。看的时候只想到是在 tease 我们。

Behind Krennic came an escort of his personal troops; an intimidation tactic lost on Tarkin as he stared out a viewport toward the massive Death Star battle station.

电影里 Galen 对 Jyn 说:“Stardust, don’t ever change.” 这句在小说里有 context,感觉更有意义了:

“Why do people fight?” she asked …

“That’s a good question,” he said. “My friend Orson says some people just fight because they’re angry. But I think-” He stopped talking and half closed his eyes. The voices in the other room continued. “I think, usually, people are unhappy, and they don’t agree how to make things better.”

Jyn watched her father, tried to tell what he thought of that idea. “Maybe they’d agree if they stopped fighting first?”

… “Stardust, don’t ever change.”

下面这段是 supplemental data 里,帝国公务邮件里 Tarkin 写给 Krennic 的。我当时就想,这么晚还提需求,对项目不好啊。但我没当真,就当是作者随便写了一句来显示 Tarkin 欺负 Krennic。没想到很后面有 Galen 写邮件以这个为理由加入了对 reactor core 的修改。所以 Tarkin 被炸归根结底是他自己太晚改需求:)

The battle station is certainly not symbolic, meant only to demonstrate the Empire’s might in ceremonial planetary executions. The main weapon must be built to fire repeatedly within a short span as it might during the course of a single fleet battle.

K2 摔了 Jyn 给他的包是印象很深的场景:)没想到小说里很自然地给这件小事一个发生的理由:

Jyn turned back to the city and the valley, trying to guess at the distance they’d need to cover. You overpacked, she decided, and tossed her satchel to K-2SO.

Jyn 一开始一直恨父亲,因为他为了帝国抛弃了她,要么是罪大莫及的战犯要么是无法反抗的懦夫。因为后来完全是父亲的遗愿驱动她的行动,所以总体来说你很难体会到她对父亲的反感。但是这种细节可以:

“My father,” she eventually said, and it tasted less bitter than she expected. “He said they powered the Jedi’s lightsabers.”

Jyn 见到 Saw 的时候解释说是义军联盟派我来的。然后 Saw 很短的反应同时点明了他的多疑和 Draven 的毫不留情,让人遐想。

Who sent you?” he asked, as if he’d caught her at a lie. “Was it Draven?”

Cassian 也有很多心理活动。他对 Jyn 的态度很值得玩味。遇到 Bodhi 之后,他就知道他可以不管 Jyn 了,带着她只会妨碍他执行暗杀任务。小说里发现,他需要更多理由。同时也显示了 Jyn 的个人 charisma。

Maybe it was the need he’d seen in Jyn, the fire that had carried her through the fighting in the Holy Quarter. It seemed obscene to leave that need unanswered, abandoned to the dust.

小说里当然还有更多 Jyn 对 Saw 的想法。如果说电影有弱点的话,我是觉得 Saw 可以更好的。他毕竟已经有很多历史了,而且和 Jyn 也有关系。然而大概因为 Saw 最初是 Lucas 设想的角色,而 Lucas 又是出奇直白的作者,所以 Saw 也注定是一个有点 sterotype 的角色。(然而我 get!Saw 拔掉气管的那里我总是被煽到。)下面是 Jyn 见 Saw 的时候的心理活动。我觉得电影其实可以通过 Jyn 更多表现一下 Saw 的层次的。

For years, she had anticipated, fantasized about confronting him; picked hurtful words and braced herself for the wrath of the first, last, and only true warrior to stand against the Empire.

Saw 说 Jyn 的话,让人想 Jyn 过去是怎样的。也许新宣布的小说会说到。

“You were the best soldier in my cadre,” Saw hissed. “Not because of your skill, but because you believed.”

再回到帝国。Tarkin 要求 Krennic 准备好向 Jedha 开火,Krennic 怀疑了半天 Tarkin 的真实动机,是不是已经搞好了破坏等看他出洋相?Krennic 得出的结论是,如果成功 Tarkin 会揽功,如果失败他会怪在 Krennic 头上。然而,Tarkin 现场要求只炸一个城市,Krennic 完全没料到,又一次被气死了。(又是一个比电影层次多的细节,电影的确不适合表现这么微妙。。。)

Krennic tugged at his gloves, felt sweat on his palms as his ire grew. His assessment of Tarkin had been incomplete: The old man was hedging against both success and failure, ensuring that even a perfect performance would be unspectacular at best.

Galen’s message 里有这么一段。他离开女儿的时候她才8,9岁,也许从小能看到老是真的。同时又点到 Lyra。

“I assume logically, rationally, that you fight with the Rebellion. It’s difficult to imagine Saw steering you any other way, and you always had the same anger-” He smiled for a second time. Here it was unforced, without self-mockery or bitterness. “- the same insistent sense of righteousness as your mother.”

在 Jedha 收到离开通知的暴风兵,其中一个随口问了一下他的长官为什么要离开。很喜欢这段。call me political correctness jerk, but I love to see a female stormtrooper – it’s lacking in the movie. 另外这也和 Jyn 骂 Cassian 和暴风兵没两样有呼应。

“I don’t,” JN-093 said, though she doubted she would have told Two if she did know. He was a stormtrooper; he should’ve known better than to ask.

小说里提到了 disruptor beams。

More K2 candy:

“There you are! I’m standing by as you ordered. Though there is a problem on the horizon.”

“What problem?” Cassian spat.

“There is no horizon. On a positive note, I may have found our planet killer.”

Bodhi 的心理活动也总是很好看,提醒你R1 crew里每个人的经历和性格都不一样。

Then he was running, chasing after Baze and Chirrut and praying that he had found his salvation at last – found the welcome Galen Erso had promised him when he had said to seek out the Rebellion, to make amends.

一小段让人会心一笑的描写,义军通讯员 Weems 向 Draven 将军报告 Cassian 从 Jedha 发来的消息:

Weems read in the deliberate tone of a man pretending not to see what he was seeing. “‘Weapon confirmed. Jedha City destroyed. Mission target located on Eadu. Please advise.'”

小说里好几次说到 Jyn 看见 Cassian 的表情变了,切换到 spy 模式。从 Jedha 逃出来后,Jyn 说我们可以摧毁死星时:

The tension in Cassian’s expression dissipated as he donned his spy’s face, his innocently cerebral face.

下面这一句也显示了crew的diversity:

K-2, Cassian knew, would gladly subdue Jyn Erso and lock her somewhere safe. If the Guardians of the Whills hadn’t been aboard, Cassian might have been tempted to try.

电影里Draven的决定看起来是有点难以原谅。这个问题在小说里就好很多,因为小说可以把动机和思路交待得更清楚。

(Captain Vienaris) “Short version: We’re in striking range, but if the Empire’s begun to evacuate we won’t catch them. Best case, Blue Squadron arrives just in time to see the Imperials jump out.”

So Galen Erso was still onsite. The planet killer might not die with him, but – if Erso really was responsible for its main weapon – it would be a hell of a lot harder to keep operational after he was gone.

“Squadron up,” Draven said. “Target Eadu. We must take out Galen Erso if we have the chance.”

(Nioma) “Do you have authorization?” she asked. “A full-scale attack on a major Imperial installation…”

。。。划线太多没力气打了。那么就直接跳到最后的大杀器:

Which one second left until total shutdown, K-2SO chose to mentally simulate an impossible scenario in which Cassian Andor escaped alive.

The simulation pleased him.

再来一个Bodhi的心理活动。看电影最喜欢的角色是K2,看小说最喜欢Bodhi。他内心戏好多,想得很多,而且老是在怪自己。这里是大家看到义军的飞船过来了都很欢呼了,但Bodhi立刻意识到这意味着shield要关了。

Maybe it was his fault for not suggesting an infiltration of the orbital gate station. Maybe he’d explained the planet’ defenses poorly to Jyn and Cassian and the soldiers, hurrying through it all in the excitement of the flight to Scarif. Maybe he should’ve been up there instead of down here.

一个小细节为什么要准备escape pods:

The Tantive IV might jump out of the system, but it was hurt and it would be pursued. Best not to take chances.

Mon Mothma对Jyn的回忆:

… the young woman whose fervor captivated so many. … I expected she could be persuaded (by which I suppose I meant manipulated) into helping us, and that in doing so we might help her, too. But the woman I met at Base One could not be manipulated. There are a very few people whose will and ferocity are so great that they pull other people in their wake. …